TM Joint Disorders
Temporomandibular joint and muscle disorders, commonly called "TMJ," are a group of conditions that cause pain and dysfunction in the jaw joint and muscles that control jaw movement.
Researchers generally agree that the conditions fall into three main categories:
1. Myofascial pain involves discomfort or pain in the muscles that control jaw function.
2. Internal derangement of the joint involves a displaced disc, dislocated jaw, or injury to the condyle.
3. Arthritis refers to a group of degenerative/inflammatory joint disorders that can affect the temporomandibular joint.
A person may have one or more of these conditions at the same time.
Some estimates suggest that TMJ disorders affect over 10 million Americans. These conditions appear to be more common in women than men.
The exact cause of a person's TMJ disorder is often difficult to determine. Your pain may be due to a combination of factors, such as genetics, arthritis or jaw injury. Some people who have jaw pain also tend to clench or grind their teeth (bruxism), although many people habitually clench or grind their teeth and never develop TMJ disorders.
In most cases, the pain and discomfort associated with TMJ disorders is temporary and can be relieved with self-managed care or nonsurgical treatments. Surgery is typically a last resort after conservative measures have failed, but some people with TMJ disorders may benefit from surgical treatments.
Signs and symptoms of TMJ disorders may include:
● Pain or tenderness of your jaw
● Pain in one or both of the temporomandibular joints
● Aching pain in and around your ear
● Difficulty chewing or pain while chewing
● Aching facial pain
● Locking of the joint, making it difficult to open or close your mouth
TMJ disorders can also cause a clicking sound or grating sensation when you open your mouth or chew. But if there's no pain or limitation of movement associated with your jaw clicking, you probably don't need treatment for a TMJ disorder.
The temporomandibular joint combines a hinge action with sliding motions. The parts of the bones that interact in the joint are covered with cartilage and are separated by a small shock-absorbing disk, which normally keeps the movement smooth.
Painful TMJ disorders can occur if:
● The disk erodes or moves out of its proper alignment
● The joint’s cartilage is damaged by arthritis
● The joint is damaged by a blow or other impact
In many cases, however, the cause of TMJ disorders isn’t clear.
Factors that may increase the risk of developing TMJ disorders include:
● Various types of arthritis, such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis
● Jaw injury
● Long-term (chronic) grinding or clenching of teeth
● Certain connective tissue diseases that cause problems that may affect the temporomandibular joint